DEFINITION OF AGRICULTURE, MEANING, AND SCOPE OF AGRONOMY

Introduction

The term agriculture is derived from the Latin words “ager” or “agri” meaning
soil” and ‘cultra’ meaning ‘cultivation
Agriculture is a very broad term encompassing all aspects of crop production,
livestock farming, fisheries, forestry, etc.
Agriculture may be defined as the art, the science, and the business of producing
crops and livestock for man’s use and employment.
Agriculture is the cultivation of lands for the production of crops for a regular
supply of food and other needs for the progress of the nation.
Agriculture is influenced by a large number of factors, some of which can be
controlled by man (soil and irrigation) which others are beyond the control (climate)
The term “Agronomy” is derived from Greek words “Agros” meaning “field
and “nomos” meaning “to manage
Agronomy is a branch of agricultural science that deals with principles and
practices of soil, water, and crop management.
Agronomy deals with methods that provide a favorable environment to the
crop for higher productivity.

Importance of basic sciences for the development of Agricultural science

  • Basic science is the study of basic principles and fundamentals of the respective subject.
  • Applied science is the study in which the basic principles and fundamentals of the respective subject are applied in a practical field.
  • Agricultural sciences are essentially applied sciences and are dependent on basic sciences of Botany, Physiology, biochemistry, ecology, zoology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, economics, etc

For example

  1. Knowledge of Botany is helpful in plant breeding and plant genetics and is
    making possible for the evolution of different varieties in crops suitable to
    particular agro-climatic condition.
  2. The knowledge of zoology (basic science of entomology) is helping the farmer
    to identify the insect pests which are responsible for damage to agricultural
    produce.
  3. Soil chemistry helps in understanding the plant nutrient status in the soil and the
    deficiency symptoms in plants.
  4. Physics helps in understanding the weather phenomena and soil conditions
  5. Mathematics is helpful in agricultural research and experimentation through statistics and Agricultural economics.
  6. The study of economics is helpful in estimating the costs and returns and existing conditions of farmers in villages for effecting the improvements

Without basic science, there can be no development in applied science. In the
field of Agriculture basic and applied sciences are interrelated to each other.

Scope of Agronomy


Agronomy is a dynamic discipline with the advancement of knowledge and
a better understanding of plants and environment, agricultural practices are modified and new practices developed for high productivity, for example, the availability of chemical fertilizer has necessitated the generation of knowledge on the method, quantity, and time of application of fertilizers. Similarly, the availability of herbicides for the control of weeds has led to the development of knowledge about selectivity, time, and method of
application of herbicides. To overcome the problems different management practices are developed.
Population pressure is increasing but the area under cultivation is static, therefore
more crops have to be grown on the same piece of land to increase the yield.
As a result, intensive cropping has come into practice.
New technology has to be developed to overcome the effect of moisture stress
under dryland conditions. As new varieties of crops with high yield potential become an available package of practices have to be developed to exploit their full potential.
Restoration of soil fertility, preparation of good seedbed, use of proper seed
rates, correct dates of sowing for each improved variety, proper conservation, and management of soil moisture, and proper control of weeds are agronomic practices to make our limited land and water resources more productive.

Relation of Agronomy to other sciences

Agronomy is a synthesis of several disciplines like soil science, Agricultural
chemistry, crop physiology, plant ecology, biochemistry, and economics. Soil physical, chemical, and biological properties have to be understood thoroughly to effect modification of soil environment. Similarly, it is necessary to understand the physiology of crops to meet their requirements. Advances in economic analysis helped in the production of crops economically.
Agronomist aims to obtain maximum production at minimum cost. He exploits
the knowledge developed by basic and applied science for higher crop production.
Whatever may be the research findings of other scientists. Agronomist has to test their suitability in the field and accept them finally and also judge the reactions of a farming community. He is a key person with working knowledge of all agricultural disciplines and a coordinator of different subject matter specialists.

What does agriculture mean?

The term agriculture is derived from the Latin words “ager” or “agri” meaning
soil” and ‘cultra’ meaning ‘cultivation

What is agronomy?

Agronomy is a dynamic discipline with the advancement of knowledge and
a better understanding of plants and environment, agricultural practices are modified and new practices developed for high productivity, for example, the availability of chemical fertilizer has necessitated the generation of knowledge on the method, quantity, and time of application of fertilizers. Similarly, the availability of herbicides for the control of weeds has led to the development of knowledge about selectivity, time, and method of
application of herbicides. To overcome the problems different management practices are developed

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I am Huma Zafar a Soil Science Graduate from Arid Agriculture University. I am interested in topics related to agronomy, agri-tech and climate change.