VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION | COMMUNICATION SKILLS

VERBAL COMMUNICATION

Oral or verbal communication is the use of any symbol, sign, or language to interact with others.

  • Face to face conversation
  • Interview
  • Meeting
  • Oral briefing
  • Public address
  • Oral presentation
  • Telephone call
  • Conference
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
  • Direct medium of communication.
  • Instant interchange of opinion, perspectives and attitudes.
  • Instantaneous comments.
  • Anyone can contribute and participate in conversation if present there.
  • Harder to maintain floor in face of opposition.
  • Difficult to manipulate when several people take part.
  • Less time to think.
  • Sometimes disputes over end results.

WRITTEN COMMUNICATION

Communicating through writing is referred as Written communication.

TYPES OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION
  • Memorandum
  • Report
  • Abstract
  • Minutes
  • Article
  • Press Release
  • Proposal
  • Letters
ADVANTAGES
  • Written reports are always present.
  • Easy way to put complicated ideas.
  • Information can be sent to numerous receivers.
  • Confirmation, interpretations and clarifications of oral conversation.
  • Form basis of contracts or agreements.
DISADVANTAGES
  • Need time to create it.
  • Can be expensive.
  • Communication can be done in more formal way.
  • Instantaneous reviews are not possible.
  • Hard to alter a dispatched message.
  • It takes time to exchange of opinions, thoughts or attitudes.

“What you do speaks so loud that I cannot hear what you say.”

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Also read: WHY STUDY COMMUNICATION | COMMUNICATION SKILLS

TYPES OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION

Non-verbal communication may be divided into following areas:

  • Kinesics
  • Proxemics
  • Para-linguistics
  • Chronemics
  • Haptics

KINESICS

Kinesics are the body movements we use to communicate. Kinesics behaviors include leaning or pressing your index finger on your lips to signal others to be quiet, can regulate communication, illustrate verbal points, reduce tension and express emotion.

Examples

  1. Facial expressions- smiles, frowns, narrowed eyes transmitting emotions
  2. Gestures- pointing fingers, shakes of the head
  3. Movements- Like to pace up and down, finger drumming, leisure strolls.

PROXEMIC

The study of rules of how people allow the use space and distance.

Different cultures have various rules about what distance to maintain. Like,

Making physical contact- shake hands, clap on the back, transmitting greetings, insistence or friendship.

Posture- standing straight, lounging, leaning forward, transmitting alertness and care, self-confidence, nervousness or ease.

Positioning- maintaining a respectful distance, searching over someone’s shoulder, transmitting awareness of differing status, a close working relationship or comfortable mutual trust.

PARA-LINGUISTICS

The vocal sounds we make other than words. It is the way we say something but not using words. When we interact with others, by vocal pitch (highness or lowness of tone), speed, loudness and rhythm we can express different meanings.

Example

If you are giving a speech to your classmates  and your speech is doubtful, your rate of speech is slow, and you are using vocal sounds such’ as “um,” “er,” “uh,” and “like, you know” as fillers. Your class may think that you don’t have the knowledge of the topic or is limited.

CHRONEMICS

This is the study of the way people use and understand time.

Time is very important in any culture. Because time equals money, so the point of interest is to follow the deadline, schedule, promptness, and alacrity while making points, all aspects of monochromic time.

According to mono-chronic time perspective, if you arrive ten mins late to your job interview, this may be a sign to the interviewer that the candidate is unreliable.

HAPTICS

This is the study of people when they touch each other. By touching you can convey a variety of messages. If you unknowingly bump into a person, you could make an apology and feel embarrassment and also touch can show closeness.

DISADVANTAGES

  • It can have so many possible meanings and can interpret it wrong.
  • Nonverbal messages don’t have a sequence.

INTRAPERSONAL COMMUNICATION

Communication that takes place within one’s own self.  Individual reflection, contemplation, meditation etc. Encompasses communicating with the divine and with spirit in the form of prayers, rites and rituals.

In short, it is a direct, written or oral type of communication between two or more persons.

EXTRA PERSONAL COMMUNICATION

Communication with anything other than humans like birds, animals etc.

We speak to parrots, or cow and our pet dogs, cats etc. to follow our instruction. They respond with happiness by moving around us or by wagging their tails.

MASS COMMUNICATION

  • The books, press, cinema, T.V, radio, internet etc. are the tools of mass media.
  •  The communication through these media to the public is an example of mass communication. The speeches delivered by political leaders.

COMMUNICATION NETWORK

  • Communication is like a tool to measure the success and growth of an organization.
  • The success of a business depends on the quantity and quality of information flowing through its personals. Therefore, the information should flow as early as possible to the customer and this will help for the smooth operation of the various departments in an organization or business.